Linux is a very powerful open-source operating system used by millions of people around the world. The ability to list users in Linux is an important task for system administrators. It allows them to monitor and manage user accounts on the system. In this article, we will explain how to list users in Linux using the command line.
The most common way to list users in Linux is to use the ‘cat’ command. To list all users on the system, open the terminal and type the following command:
This command will list all user accounts on the system, including system users and normal user accounts. For each user, it will list various information such as username, user ID,group ID and home directory.
List Normal Uers
If you want to get a list of only normal users, you can use the ‘grep’ command.
For example, to list only normal users, type the following command:
cat /etc/passwd | grep /home
This command will list only users with a home directory. It will filter out system users such as ‘root’ and ‘nobody’.
You can also list users in Linux using the ‘getent’ command. This command queries the Name Service Switch (NSS) and the underlying name service modules, such as files, LDAP, NIS, and Kerberos databases.
Querying Authentication Services
To list all users on the system using the ‘getent’ command, type the following command:
Unlike the ‘cat’ command, the ‘getent’ command queries the underlying name service modules. This means that it will list users from all sources, including system users and normal users.
List User ID
Finally, you can use the ‘id’ command to list a specific user’s group membership and user ID. This is useful if you only need information about a single specific user. To list a user’s group and user ID, use the following command:
This command will show you the user’s group membership and user ID.
In this article, we have explained how to list users in Linux.
We have shown you how to use the ‘cat’, ‘grep’, ‘getent’, and ‘id’ commands to list users on a Linux system.
With these commands, you can easily monitor and manage user accounts on your Linux system.
What are Linux users, and why are they important in cybersecurity?
How can I list all users on a Linux system?
You can use the
cat /etc/passwd command to list all users in Linux. This file contains information about each user account, including usernames.
What is the difference between system users and regular users in Linux?
System users are used for system processes and services, and they typically have no login shell or home directory. Regular users, on the other hand, are meant for human users and have login shells and home directories.
How do I create a new user in Linux securely?
You can create a new user using the
useradd command. To do it securely, specify a strong password, consider limiting their privileges with groups, and regularly audit user accounts for any unauthorized changes.
What is the purpose of user groups in Linux?
User groups in Linux help organize users and manage permissions. By assigning users to specific groups, you can control access to files, directories, and system resources more efficiently.
What are some best practices for securing Linux user accounts?
Enforce strong password policies.
Implement two-factor authentication (2FA) where possible.
Regularly review and audit user accounts.
Remove unnecessary user accounts and access rights.
Use role-based access control (RBAC) to limit privileges.
Keep user account information up-to-date.
How can I audit user activity on a Linux system?
You can use tools like auditd and the
auditctl command to set up auditing for user activity. This allows you to monitor logins, file access, and other user actions.
What is the risk of leaving unused or default user accounts in a Linux system?
Unused or default user accounts can be potential security risks. Attackers may exploit them to gain unauthorized access. It’s crucial to regularly review and remove such accounts.
How can I limit user access to specific directories in Linux?
You can use file permissions and access control lists (ACLs) to restrict user access to directories. The
setfacl commands are commonly used for this purpose.
What is the significance of user privilege escalation in Linux security?
User privilege escalation refers to the process of gaining higher-level access rights on a system. Cybersecurity experts need to monitor and prevent unauthorized privilege escalation attempts as they can lead to system compromise.